CSS Pseudo-class

A CSS pseudo-class defines a special state of an HTML element.

CSS supports numerous states, such as :active, :hover, :focus, and more.

Below is a complete list of all pseudo-classes.

Example

#

This button uses the :hover pseudo-class to create a hover animation.
Hover over the button to see the effect.

<style>
  .my-button {
    background-color: white;
    color: #302ea3;
    padding: 5px;
    border: 2px solid #302ea3;
  }

  .my-button:hover {
    background-color: #302ea3;
    color: white;
    cursor: pointer;
  }
</style>

<button class="my-button">
  Hover this button
</button>

Using Pseudo-classes

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Pseudo classes specify a special state of an HTML element.

They can be used to style the following situations:

  • When a cursor moves over an element
  • Visited or unvisited links
  • When an element receives focus

Pseudo classes help increase interactivity on web pages.

Pseudo-class CSS syntax

The syntax for pseudo-classes.

selector:pseudo-class {
  property:value;
}
  • The selector refers to the element(s) to be styled.
  • The :pseudo-class is the state, for example :hover, :active, or :focus.
  • The : (colon) after the selector signifies that a specified state follows.
  • property:value is a regular CSS property value

All Pseudo Classes

Below is a list of all CSS pseudo classes.

Selector Example Description
:active a:active Selects the active link
:checked input:checked Selects every checked <input> element
:disabled input:disabled Selects every disabled <input> element
:empty p:empty Selects every <p> element that has no children
:enabled input:enabled Selects every enabled <input> element
:first-child p:first-child Selects every <p> elements that is the first child of its parent
:first-of-type p:first-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the first <p> element of its parent
:focus input:focus Selects the <input> element that has focus
:hover a:hover Selects links on mouse over
:in-range input:in-range Selects <input> elements with a value within a specified range
:invalid input:invalid Selects all <input> elements with an invalid value
:lang(language) p:lang(it) Selects every <p> element with a lang attribute value starting with "it"
:last-child p:last-child Selects every <p> elements that is the last child of its parent
:last-of-type p:last-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the last <p> element of its parent
:link a:link Selects all unvisited links
:not(selector) :not(p) Selects every element that is not a <p> element
:nth-child(n) p:nth-child(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second child of its parent
:nth-last-child(n) p:nth-last-child(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second child of its parent, counting from the last child
:nth-last-of-type(n) p:nth-last-of-type(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second <p> element of its parent, counting from the last child
:nth-of-type(n) p:nth-of-type(2) Selects every <p> element that is the second <p> element of its parent
:only-of-type p:only-of-type Selects every <p> element that is the only <p> element of its parent
:only-child p:only-child Selects every <p> element that is the only child of its parent
:optional input:optional Selects <input> elements with no "required" attribute
:out-of-range input:out-of-range Selects <input> elements with a value outside a specified range
:read-only input:read-only Selects <input> elements with a "readonly" attribute specified
:read-write input:read-write Selects <input> elements with no "readonly" attribute
:required input:required Selects <input> elements with a "required" attribute specified
:root root Selects the document's root element
:target #news:target Selects the current active #news element (clicked on a URL containing that anchor name)
:valid input:valid Selects all <input> elements with a valid value
:visited a:visited Selects all visited links


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